Bibliography of Seminal Articles and Briefs in the Development of Rural Programs

Last Updated: 7-16-2017, Randall Longenecker MD, Executive Director

The following are available online by clicking on the title:

Rural Medical Education Programs: A Proposed Nomenclature
A perspective written by the executive director of The RTT Collaborative, Dr. Randall Longenecker, summarizing the history of definitions around rural medical education programs and published by the ACGME, proposes a common nomenclature.
Journal of Graduate Medical Education, June 2017

Rural Health Information HubEducation and Training of the Rural Healthcare Workforce Introduction

Information, resources, and frequently asked questions related to the education and training of the rural healthcare workforce.
Rural Health Information Hub

Family Medicine Rural Training Track Residencies: 2008-2015 Graduate Outcomes
Policy brief tracking practice outcomes of family physicians who completed graduate medical education in Rural Training Track (RTT) residency programs. Features statistics on 253 RTT graduates, including background characteristics and percentage practicing in rural areas and Primary Care Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) 1-7 years after graduation. Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center. Date: 02/2016
Rural Health Information Hub

Medical School Rural Tracks in the US
Reviews the status of rural tracks in medical school education in the United States, including a listing and program characteristics. Sponsoring organization: Federal Office of Rural Health Policy and the National Rural Health Association. Date: 09/2013

Rural Residency Training for Family Medicine Physicians: Graduate Early-Career Outcomes, 2008-2012
Discusses the effectiveness of family medicine rural training track residency programs (RTTs), which train physicians for practice in rural and underserved areas. Sponsoring organization: Rural Training Track Technical Assistance Program. Date: 01/2013
Rural Health Information Hub

Rural Residency Training for Family Medicine Physicians: Graduate Early-Career Outcomes
Discusses family medicine rural training track residency programs (RTTs), which train physicians for practice in rural and underserved areas. Sponsoring organization: Rural Training Track Technical Assistance Program. Date: 01/2012
Rural Health Information Hub

Family Medicine Spokane Rural Training Track: 24 Years of Rural-Based Graduate Medical Education
Describes the Family Medicine Spokane (FMS) Rural Training Track, its success, challenges, and lessons learned. Date: 11/2010
Rural Health Information Hub

Rural Training Track Programs: A Guide to the Medicare Requirements
Provides guidance to urban hospitals, rural hospitals, and rural non-hospital clinical training sites on how to take part in a Rural Training Track (RTT) to train residents to practice in rural areas. Explains how hospitals can receive additional payments from Medicare to train residents in an RTT program, beyond the graduate medical education (GME) caps in place since 1996. Sponsoring organization: Association of American Medical Colleges. Date: 2015
Rural Health Information Hub

Building a Community of Practice in Rural Medical Education: Growing our own together
Chronicles the rise, decline, and recent resurgence of rural training track residency programs (RTTs) in the USA over the past 30 years and the emergence of a healthy community of practice in rural medical education. Date: 03/2017
Rural and Remote Health

The following articles are available as abstracts on PubMed, and full copies may be available from your local university.

Increasing the Rural Physician Workforce: A Potential Role for Small Rural Medical School Campuses
The authors conclude that the investment of resources in a rural campus may add an increment to rural practice choice beyond the established associations with rural upbringing and family medicine residency.
June 2016

The WWAMI Targeted Rural Underserved Track (TRUST) Program: An Innovative Response to Rural Physician Workforce Shortages
To address the physician workforce needs of the Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho (WWAMI) region, the University of Washington School of Medicine developed the Targeted Rural Underserved Track (TRUST) program.
January 2016

Influencing Residency Choice and Practice Location Through a Longitudinal Rural Pipeline Program
The University of Missouri School of Medicine developed the Rural Track Pipeline Program (MU-RTPP) to increase the supply and retention of rural physicians statewide.
November 2011